According to 2020 data from the IDF (International Diabetes Federation), 77 million people in India have diabetes. Almost 2% of our population die each year as a result of diabetes. Well, the changed lifestyle and eating pattern can be blamed. As an individual, early diagnosis and lifestyle correction are two factors that can save us from becoming part of this problem. Here are the details about symptoms of diabetes that you should know and get right away.
What is Diabetes
Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a condition characterized by abnormally high blood sugar levels. It leads to the elimination of excess glucose in the urine. Diabetes results from a lack of insulin or, in some cases, from the body’s inability to use insulin. This leads to abnormalities in carbohydrate as well as fat and protein metabolism.
Types of diabetes:
The three types of diabetes are
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus: Insulin is produced in the body. However, the ability to use insulin is impaired, and a person develops insulin resistance. Read on – Indian Diet Plan For Type 2 Diabetes.
Symptoms of diabetes
The symptoms of diabetes differ depending on the type of diabetes, age, and physiological condition of the patient. Here is a list of some common symptoms of diabetes
Our kidneys try to remove the excess sugar in the blood by filtering it out. During this process, excess urine is formed and the person becomes urged to urinate frequently. The frequency of urination mostly increases during the night, which represents an increase in blood sugar.
Increased thirst / polydipsia
Increased thirst and dry mouth are often linked to diabetes. These symptoms occur because of the increased frequency of urination. The body becomes dehydrated from excessive urination. As a result, you may experience a dry mouth and increased thirst. Drinking sugary drinks can make the condition worse.
Increased hunger / polyphagia
Polyphagia is a major symptom of diabetes and occurs when glucose in the blood cannot get into cells of the body due to a lack of insulin or insulin resistance. Because the body cannot convert this glucose into energy, you feel hungry all the time.
Eating more is not a solution to this symptom. It will cause an uncontrolled rise in blood sugar levels. Hence, the situation will worsen.
If you have high blood sugar levels for a long period of time and diabetes goes undetected, it can slow the healing of small cuts, wounds, and infections. The blood vessels become stiff and the regular blood flow is impaired. This leads to a lack of nutrients and oxygen in the body’s cells, which can delay healing.
Fatigue and exhaustion are two different terms. Hence, it is important to understand the difference between them in order to make diagnosis easier. If you are tired, you will feel better and full of energy after resting. However, when you are tired, resting won’t help that tiredness go away. Fatigue and weakness can occur when the cells are not receiving enough glucose. The lack of diabetes medication makes the weakness predominate.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:
Some symptoms are specific to the type of diabetes. Here are some symptoms of type 1 diabetes.
- Accidental weight loss
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:
Here are some symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Chronic symptoms and complications of type 1 diabetes:
Type I diabetes continues to affect your entire body even after you start treatment. However, when the sugar levels are under control, the chances of harming the body are reduced. Some of the complications of type 1 diabetes are as follows:
The 2 problems that people with type 1 diabetes commonly experience are blisters and sores. If the wound is left untreated, gangrene can occur. The lack of sensation suggests that the injuries to the feet may have gone unnoticed. These untreated injuries can lead to dry and cracked skin. It allows infectious agents to enter the body. Amputation may be required in this condition.
High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the retina. This can cause bleeding and damage to the part of the retina that can sense light. This condition can affect both eyes. Symptoms include a blank or dark spot in the center of vision, blurred vision, difficulty seeing well at night, and seeing swimmers or spots. However, retinopathy can be stopped with the help of laser therapy or by controlling blood sugar. If not effectively controlled, it can cause blindness.
Nephropathy or kidney disease
Uncontrolled blood sugar levels can lead to kidney damage and also lead to kidney failure. It is believed that high blood pressure can contribute to diabetic nephropathy.
Neuropathy or nerve damage
High blood sugar levels can cause nerve damage. They lead to numbness or pain in the affected area of the body. Nerve damage to the hands, legs, and feet is common. There are several types of diabetic neuropathy, namely peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, proximal and focal neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is damage to peripheral nerves in the legs or feet. Autonomous neuropathy affects the nerves that control the nervous system. For example vascular, urinary and gastrointestinal nerves. Focal neuropathy affects an area or nerve on any part of the body.
Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar that can be caused by pills, insulin, injections, skipping meals, or taking sugar-lowering drugs. Some of the symptoms include dizziness, sudden sweating, weakness, confusion, blurred vision, tremors, and headache. Low glucose levels can affect brain function because sugar is the main source of energy. If hypoglycemia is not timely controlled by consuming carbohydrates, it can lead to a coma.
Type 1 diabetes patients are more likely to develop strokes, heart disease, and problems related to poor blood circulation. Because blood sugar fluctuates, it can lead to repeated heart injuries and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
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Chronic symptoms and complications of type 2 diabetes
Atherosclerosis is the narrowing and hardening of the arteries. This condition can affect blood flow to the body’s organs. Symptoms include chest pain, sweating, shortness of breath, and sweating. When it narrows the arteries in the brain, it can cause confusion or dizziness. When atherosclerosis narrows the arteries in the intestines, swelling of the abdomen occurs. The organs most affected are the heart, legs, and brain.
Peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom of type 2 diabetes. It causes damage to the nerves that control urination, sexual function, and digestion. First, nerve damage occurs to the legs, causing numbness and pain in the feet.
Retinal damage can block blood flow and lead to bleeding. Symptoms include blurred vision, eye spots, and swimmers. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the advanced and final stage of the eye disease in diabetes. If left untreated, this condition can lead to blindness and increase the risk of glaucoma and cataracts.
Nephropathy refers to kidney damage. It occurs when blood sugar levels as well as blood pressure are elevated and left untreated. Symptoms include nausea, muscle twitching, swelling of the face, hands, and feet, loss of appetite, itching, and drowsiness. As a result, the kidneys cannot remove the toxic waste.
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Type 1 diabetes occurs in childhood or early adulthood. If ignored, it causes health problems like diabetic ketoacidosis and leads to fatal coma. Type 2 diabetes can be overlooked because it is slow to develop and early stages can be difficult to spot. However, it is very important to diagnose diabetes in a timely manner to avoid damage to the heart, nerves, kidneys, eyes, and blood vessels.