Age is a key think about sex-related outcomes after coronary heart assault, signifies research
In the United States, about 1.5 million heart attacks and strokes occur in both men and women each year. Gender and age play huge roles in how a heart attack develops, the methods of treating these heart attacks, and the possible outcomes people experience after being hospitalized for a heart attack.
Mayo Clinic researchers discuss these gender and age differences in study results published in the Mayo Clinic Proceedings.
In this study, Mayo Clinic researchers wanted to find out whether age is a key factor in determining gender differences in patients with heart attacks.
Using the public all-payer hospital data from the nationwide inpatient sample, the research team evaluated more than 6.7 million hospital records for heart attacks. They categorized the information by gender and divided the patients into four age categories: under 45, 45-64, 65-84, and over 84.
In order to fully compare the given treatment, the patients were further categorized according to the type of myocardial infarction. In a STEMI, or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, an artery that supplies blood to the heart is completely blocked. In a heart attack with NSTEMI or myocardial infarction without an ST elevation, there is no ST elevation, but typically a significant but partial artery blockage.
The results reveal several main issues related to gender and age differences, according to Dr. Mohamad Adnan Alkhouli, an interventional cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic and lead author of the study.
Women in all age groups had fewer acute heart attacks than men. However, because there are more women than men over 84, more women in this age group have had a heart attack. In the NSTEMI and STEMI groups, women showed significant differences in their risk profile for heart disease compared to men.
Women were more likely to have high blood pressure, diabetes, anemia, atrial fibrillation, chronic lung disease, and a previous stroke. However, women are less likely than men to have had a previous heart attack and less likely to have had an implantable defibrillator, previous revascularization, or cardiogenic shock.
The data show a marked difference between the sexes in hospital treatment for a heart attack. In the NSTEMI group, women of all ages were less likely than men to have a coronary angiography of the vessels, angioplasty to open clogged arteries with a balloon catheter, bypass grafting of the coronary arteries to divert blood flow, or mechanical circulatory support.
In the STEMI group, women were also less likely to have coronary angiography, primary angioplasty, or mechanical circulatory assistance. This was true for all age groups.
Compared to men, the data shows that poorer hospital outcomes in women are limited to younger people. In the NSTEMI group, women under 65 were more likely than men to die in hospital due to heart attacks.
This difference in mortality in women versus men was also observed in patients under 85 years of age in the STEMI group. Both categories of myocardial infarction were more likely to have vascular complications and severe bleeding in younger women, although stroke and acute kidney failure did not.
These data suggest that younger women are at higher risk of serious complications after a heart attack and should therefore be the focus of further research to identify strategies to reduce this increased risk. “
Mohamad Adnan Alkhouli, MD, study author and interventional cardiologist, Mayo Clinic